Since 2006, the DR Congo has been a unitary republic based on the constitution approved by a referendum in 2005. The constitution established a semi-presidential republic, with a separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judiciary and a distribution of prerogatives between the central government and the provinces. The institutions of the government consist of :
- The President of the Republic
- The Central Government
- A Parliament of two Chambers :
- The Senate (Upper House)
- The National Assembly Courts of Justice
Presidential and legislative elections are held simultaneously every 5 years. The last were held on November 28th 2011. The elected National Assembly of 500 seats was installed in February 2012 while a 108-seat Senate was elected by the provincial assemblies on January 19th 2006. The latest National Government was appointed on April 28th 2012; its members from parties in the pro-Kabila alliance, Majoritè prèsidentielle (MP).
There are 20 parties represented in the new government, but the Parti du peuple pour la reconstruction et la dèmocratie (PPRD) dominates with eight ministers; Mouvement social pour le renouveau (MSR) has three ministries, and the Parti lumumbiste unifiè (Palu) two; the main opposition parties are the Union pour la dèmocratie et le progrès social (UDPS), Mouvement de libèration du Congo (MLC) and Union pour la nation congolaise (UNC).
As far as the Judicial Branch is concerned, it is composed of : Constitutional Court; Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation; Council of State; High Military Court; plus civil and military courts and tribunals.